Chapter 1. Introduction
Understanding How and Why
A Case to Study: Plasticity and David
Including All Kinds of People
Observing Changes over Time
A View from Science: Mirror Neurons
Using the Scientific Method
Cautions and Challenges from Science
- Discussion of the all-important Nature-Nurture controversy has been brought forward to Ch. 1.
- Discussion of critical and sensitive periods in development has been brought forward from Chapters 4 and 5.
- The scientific method is clearly illustrated through description of the research on SIDS, an issue most students are familiar with.
Chapter 2. Theories
What Theories Do
Thinking Critically: Toilet Training—How and When?
A View from Science: If Your Mate Were Unfaithful
What Theories Contribute
- Thorough discussion of the "grand" developmental theories: psychoanalytic theory, behaviorism, and cognitive theory.
- New coverage of the universal perspective in development theory—specifically, humanism and evolutionary theory.
- A new Thinking Critically feature looks at toilet training from different theoretical perspectives and asks students to consider the values that are embedded in each approach.
- A new A View from Science feature looks at the controversial evolutionary theory about human mating behavior and discusses similar controversies that arise with other applications of evolutionary theory.
Chapter 3. Heredity and Environment
The Genetic Code
Thinking Critically: Too Many Boys?
The Beginnings of Life
Thinking Critically: Two Babies for the Price of One?
From One Cell to Many
Genotype and Phenotype
Chromosomal and Genetic Problems
- Comprehensive coverage of epigenetic theory, including recent research on methylation and its influence on gene expression.
- Includes updated research on stem cells.
- New Thinking Critically feature explores the issue of sex determination, including policies and practices in different cultures.
Chapter 4. Prenatal Development and Birth
Prenatal Growth Germinal: Birth
The Newborn’s First Minutes
Thinking Critically: Home Births
Problems and Solutions
A Case to Study: "What Do People Live to Do?"
The New Family
- Presents recent research on issues related to low-birthweight newborns.
- Expanded discussion of the role of fathers during pregnancy and in infant development.
- In-depth coverage of reflexes—including those that are not necessary for survival but that signify the state of brain and body functions—now appears in discussion of the newborn.
Chapter 5. The First Two Years: Biosocial Development
Thinking Critically: Where Should Babies Sleep?
A View from Science: Face Recognition
Sensation and Movement
Surviving in Good Health
A Case to Study: Breast-Fed Kiana, Close to Death
- Includes a new Thinking Critically feature on the topical issue of co-sleeping, including discussion of co-sleeping practices in various cultures.
- Presents recent research findings on neurological development in infants, including discussion of plasticity and how experience helps shape the brain.
- Discusses the influence of stress on brain development.
Chapter 6. The First Two Years: Cognitive Development
Language: What Develops in the First Two Years?
Thinking Critically: My Baby Can Read?
- Includes comprehensive discussion of Piaget’s theory of sensorimotor intelligence, including a thoroughly updated and expanded discussion of perspectives from modern research.
- In-depth discussion of information processing theory as it applies to infant cognition.
- Presents new research findings on memory in infants; discusses both the fragility of memory and the efficacy of reminder sessions and strategies.
- Comprehensive coverage of language learning, including infants’ language preferences and a reorganized and expanded section on cultural differences and similarities in language acquisition.
Chapter 7. The First Two Years: Psychosocial Development
A View from Science: Still Frightened?
Theories of Infant Psychosocial Development
A Case to Study: "Let’s Go to Grandma’s"
The Development of Social Bonds
- New A View from Science feature presents recent research on temperament in infants, emphasizing both continuity of temperament and the effect of family and culture.
- Discusses key aspects of emotional development in infants and in toddlers, including the extensive influence of brain maturation on the development of emotions.
- Section on infant day care has been substantially expanded and now includes comparison of day-care policies in 10 nations.
Chapter 8. Early Childhood: Biosocial Development
Improved Motor Skills
Injuries and Abuse
A Case to Study: "My Baby Swallowed Poison"
A View from Science: Emotions Are Hard to Heal
- The section on brain development incorporates exciting recent research on neurological development in children.
- The Research Design feature, in a section on environmental hazards, presents compelling new research on asthma risk.
- The section Injuries and Abuse incorporates a short new section on age-related dangers; it also includes discussion of accident autopsy and statistical analysis in determinating the primary causes of injuries.
- A section on Child Maltreatment discusses cultural bias in the perception of what is or is not potentially injurious.
- New A View from Science feature explores the long-term effects of child maltreatment.
Chapter 9. Early Childhood: Cognitive Development
Piaget and Vygotsky
A View from Science: Witness to a Crime
Early Childhood Education
- New A View from Science feature discusses early cognitive competency in the context of whether or not a child’s eyewitness account of a crime is reliable.
- New Research Design feature demonstrates the power of scaffolding for 2- to 6-year-olds in different cultures.
- New Thinking Critically feature explores the costs and benefits of early childhood education.
- Presents new research that identifies five early intervention strategies that are effective in enhancing reading ability years later in elementary school.
Chapter 10. Early Childhood: Psychosocial Development
Challenges for Parents
A View from Science: Culture and Punishment
Becoming Boys and Girls
Thinking Critically: Berger and Freud
- Discusses the role of play in children’s development and cultural differences and similarities in children’s play.
- Reorganized and expanded section on children’s moral development.
- Incorporates new research on cultural differences in disciplinary practices, including new A View from Science feature on cultural determinants of effective discipline.
Chapter 11. Middle Childhood: Biosocial Development
A Healthy Time
Health Problems in Middle Childhood
A Case to Study: Asthma in Two Active 8-Year-Olds
Children With Special Needs
A View from Science: Drugs for Children
Gifted and Talented
Thinking Critically: Fair and Reasonable Grounds?
- The section on health problems in middle childhood substantially rewritten to include recent research findings.
- New A Case to Study feature looks at the impact of SES on childhood asthma.
- The section on brain development includes new research on the massive interconnections that are apparent in children’s brains by middle childhood.
- New section on identifying and educating "gifted and talented" students includes a Thinking Critically feature that explores cultural and SES influences on that designation.
Chapter 12. Middle Childhood: Cognitive Development
Building on Theory
Thinking Critically: Balls Rolling Down
A Case to Study: Two Immigrants
Teaching and Learning
- New research on how culture affects both the content and the methods of learning.
- Section on information processing expanded to include recent research on control processes and the effectiveness of memory strategies; includes research on development of numeracy and the efficacy of explicit instruction for children with special needs.
Chapter 13. Middle Childhood: Psychosocial Development
The Nature of the Child
Families and Children
A View from Science: "I Always Dressed One in Blue Stuff . . ."
A Case to Study: How Hard Is It to Be a Kid?
A View from Science: Divorce
The Peer Group
Children’s Moral Values
- New A Case to Study feature explores a child’s resilience in the face of overwhelming odds.
- New A View from Science presents recent research on the effects of divorce on children.
- Includes an expanded section on children’s development of moral values and a new section on the morality of child labor.
Chapter 14: Adolescence: Biosocial Development
A View from Science: Get Real
The Transformations of Puberty
A Case to Study: "What Were You Thinking?"
- Includes new research on the role of stress in the onset of puberty.
- Expanded section on nutritional issues in adolescence, including a focus on eating disorders.
- New section discusses neurological development in adolescence.
Chapter 15: Adolescence: Cognitive Development
Logic and Self
Two Modes of Thinking
Technology and Cognition
Teaching and Learning
A Case to Study: James, the High-Achieving Dropout
Thinking Critically: Increasing Adolescent Engagement in School
- Reorganized for greater emphasis on ongoing development of self-concept and attainment of logical thinking in adolescence.
- Includes an expanded section on intuitive, emotional thought.
- New Thinking Critically feature explores ways to increase student engagement in school.
- Expanded section on technology and cognition incorporates recent research on adolescents’ access to and use of technology, including social networking, and the impact such use has on social development and academic achievement.
Chapter 16: Adolescence: Psychosocial Development
Relationships with Adults
A View from Science: Parents, Genes, and Risks
Sadness and Anger
A Case to Study: He Always Kept His Worries to Himself
Drug Use and Abuse
- New A View from Science feature explores the surprising efficacy of a targeted intervention program for at-risk families.
- Discussion of relationships in adolescence reorganized into two major sections—one on relationships with adults and one on peer relationships.
- New major section on substance use/abuse and its effect on psychosocial development in adolescence.
Epilogue. Emerging Adulthood
A View from Science: Stereotype Threat
A Case to Study: The Academic and the Personal
- Presents updated neurological research, including findings on the connection between social understanding and maturation of the prefrontal cortex; also discusses the link between brain maturation and the attainment of postformal thinking.
- New A View from Science feature presents recent research on the impact of stereotype threat.
- Presents new research on how emerging adults use social networking sites and the effect on their face-to-face relationships.